Concepts
Type class
Type classes are in a sense dual to type declarations. Whereas the latter defines how types are created, type class defines how a set of types are consumed.
When talking about polymorphism, type class enables a form of adhoc polymorphism
or overloading
^{[1]} that needs to be delimited as such to play well with parametric polymorphism
and keeping the type checking sane.
Type class are not first class in Haskell. They cannot be used in place of type (as you would in Java with interface).
It is internally implemented as dictionnary passing: ghc
puts the methods of the instance in a dictionary and passes that implicitly to any functions having a class constraint.
It is best to look at them as a set of constraints on type. One notable drawback is that each type can have at most one implementation of the type class.
Eq, Show, Num, Integral, Ord, Enum are classical examples.
class Num a where
(+) :: a > a > a
(*) :: a > a > a
() :: a > a > a
negate :: a > a
abs :: a > a
signum :: a > a
fromInteger :: Integer > a
Using enumFromTo from the Enum type class:
→ enumFromTo 3 8 > [3,4,5,6,7,8]
→ enumFromTo 'a' 'f' > "abcdef"
In Scala, typeclasses are types themselves, and instances are first class values.
Type Family
data Nat = Zero  Succ Nat
 Add is a type which is a function on types
type family Add (x :: Nat) (y :: Nat) :: Nat
 Then comes the implementation of the (type) function
type instance Add Zero y = y
type instance Add (Succ x) y = Succ (Add x y)
Typeable
The Typeable class is used to create runtime type information for arbitrary types:
{# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable #}
import Data.Typeable
data Animal = Cat  Dog deriving Typeable
data Zoo a = Zoo [a] deriving Typeable
example :: TypeRep (1)
example = typeRep (Zoo [Cat, Dog]) (2)
 Zoo Animal
1  Runtime representation of the type of the value 
2  typeRep correspond to typeOf which is kept for backwardscompatibility 
class Typeable a where
typeRep :: Proxy a > TypeRep (1)
1  take a type (Proxy) that it never look at 
Typeable
is actually as old as Haskell (before it was even called Haskell …)
Ref/State Primitives
 MVars

concurrency primitive, designed for access from multiple threads. It is a box which can be full or empty. If a thread tries to read a value from an empty MVar, it will block until the MVar gets filled (by another thread). Same with full and takeMVar.
 IVar

Immutable variable you are only allowed to write to it once.
 STM

Retry aborts the transaction and retry it whenever the TVar gets modified.
 IORef

Just a reference to some data, a
cell
. Operate in IO. You can think of it like a database, file, or other external data store.atomicModifyIORef
uses CAS (compare and swap implemented at the hardware level) to guarantee the atomicity of readmodifywrite kind of operations.
Functor
A functor is a structurepreserving mapping (or homomorphism) between 2 categories.
This means that :

for an object
A
in one category, there is a corresponding objectF A
in the second one. 
for a morphism (A → B), there is the corresponding F A → F B
In Haskell, the objects are types and the mappings are functions. Type constructors (* → *) are used to map types into types.
class Functor f where
fmap :: (a > b) > f a > f b
The functor defines the action of an arbitrary function (a → b) on a structure (f a) of elements of type a resulting in the same structure but full of elements of type b.
fmap id = id
fmap (g . h) = fmap g . fmap h
instance Functor ((>) r) where
fmap f g = f . g  or fmap = (.)
Another intuition is to look at functors as producers of output that can have its type adapted. So Maybe a
represents an output of type a that might be present (Just a) or absent (Nothing). fmap f
allows us to adapt the output of type a to an output of type b.
Whenever you have producer of outputs, you might also have the dual consumer of inputs. This is where Contravariant comes in. The intuition behind a Contravariant is that it reflects a sort of "consumer of input" that can have the type of accepted input adapted.
class Contravariant f where
contramap :: (b > a) > f a > f b
So here we can adapt the input to go from a consumer of input 'a' to a consumer of input 'b'. But to go there you need to provide a function from 'b' to 'a'
Isomorphisms
Category theory allows us to give a precise, abstract (works for all categories) and selfcontained definition of an isomorphism:
An arrow/morphism f: A → B is called an isomorphism in C if there is an arrow g that goes from B to A such that:
g ∘ f = 1A and f ∘ g = 1B
Applicative
With a functor f it is not possible to apply a function wrapped by the structure f
to a value wrapped by f. This is given by Applicative:
class Functor f => Applicative f where
pure :: a > f a
(<*>) :: f (a > b) > f a > f b
<*> is just function application within a computational context.
As soon as you want to define the type (a → b → c) → f a → f b → f c
you need the applicative construction:
liftA2 :: Applicative f => (a > b > c) > f a > f b > f c
liftA2 f a b = fmap f a <*> b
It is not that hard to convince yourself that an applicative functor is just a functor that knows how to lift functions of arbitrary arities.
fmap g x = pure g <*> x
Applicative functors are to be preferred to monads when the structure of a computation is fixed a priori. That makes it possible to perform certain kinds of static analysis on applicative values.
Alternative
An Alternative instance gives an applicative functor the structure of a monoid, with empty as the unit element, and <> as the binary operation.
class Applicative f => Alternative f where
empty :: f a
(<>) :: f a > f a > f a
 asum

give you the first successful computation or the last zero value. With failures, it really disregards them striving for success. It is defined as:
asum = foldr (<>) empty
→ asum [Just 1, Just 2, Nothing] > Just 1 → asum [Left "Failing", Right()] > Right () → asum [Left "Failing", Left "Failing again"] > Left "Failing again"
Note that some monad such as ExceptT are appending (using the monoid instance) the error messages (the Monoid m ⇒ Left m
) when using asum
or msum
.
MonadPlus together with mzero , mplus and msum are the monadic equivalents. Since 7.10, all MonadPlus are Alternative (likewise all monads are applicatives).
so you whould avoid using these and prefer empty, (<>) and asum.

Monad
class Applicative m => Monad m where
join :: m (m a) > m a
(>>=) :: m a > (a > m b) > m b (1)
1  The signature of bind allows the second computation to depend on the value of the first one. 
Monadic values are produced in a context. Monads provide both substitution (fmap) and renormalization (join).
m >>= f = join (fmap f m)
Even if a monad is strictly more powerful than an Applicative, there are situations for which an applicative is the only valid choice.
Indeed <*>
lets you explore both arguments by pattern matching but with ap
the right hand side cannot be evaluated without the result from the left.
As a stretch while applicative allows for parallelism, monad allows for sequencing.
A monad is like a monoid where we combine functors "vertically".
join
is analogous to(+)
andreturn
to0
.
By law >> = *> . Consequently mapM_ = traverse_ .


SideEffect

Environment

Error

Indeterminism
State
The State monad is just an abstraction for a function that takes a state and returns an intermediate value and some new state value:
newtype State s a = State { runState :: s > (a, s) }
It is commonly used when needing state in a single thread of control. It doesn’t actually use mutable state and so does not necessary operate in IO.
ST
The ST^{[2]} monad lets you use updateinplace, but unlike IO it is escapable. This means it uses system trickery to ensure that mutable data can’t escape the monad; that is, when you run an ST computation you get a pure result.
ST actions have the form:
 an ST action returning a value of type a in state t
newtype ST s a = ST (Store s > (a, Store s))
 a mutable variable in thread s
data STRef s a = STRef (MutVar# s a)
newSTRef :: a > ST s (STRef s a)
readSTRef :: STRef s a > ST s a
writeSTRef :: STRef s a > a > ST s ()
The reason ST is interesting is that it’s a primitive monad like IO, allowing computations to perform lowlevel manipulations on bytearrays and pointers. This means that ST can provide a pure interface while using lowlevel operations on mutable data, meaning it’s very fast. From the perspective of the program, it’s as if the ST computation runs in a separate thread with threadlocal storage.
Free
A free construction is a real instance of that construction that hold no extra property. It is the least special possible instance. A free monad is just substitution (fmap) with the minimum amount of renormalization needed to pass the monad laws.
It is perfect to separate syntax (data, ast, parsing) from semantics (interpretation)
The free monad is guaranteed to be the formulation that gives you the most flexibility how to interpret it, since it is purely syntactic.
data Free f a = Pure a  Free (f (Free f a))
The fixed point of a function is generally just the repeated application of that function: fix f = f (f (f (f (f (f (f (f (f (f (f (f (f … )))))))))))) or fix f = f (fix f)
A Monad n is a free Monad for f if every Monad homomorphism from n to another monad m is equivalent to a natural transformation from f to m.
Existential classes
When someone defines a universal type ∀X they’re saying: you can plug in whatever type you want, I don’t need to know anything about the type to do my job, I’ll only refer to it opaquely as X.
When someone defines an existential type ∃X they’re saying: I’ll use whatever type I want here; you won’t know anything about the type, so you can only refer to it opaquely as X.
ByteString

Word8 is Haskell’s standard representation of a byte

ByeString character functions (
Data.ByteString.Char8
) only work with ASCII text, hence the Char8 in the package name → if you are working with unicode, you should use the Text package 
In general we use strict bytestring when you have control about the message. Lazy bytestring is a bit more flexible and used for streaming.
Lazyness
Reduction is done using outermost reduction. For instance:
loop = tail loop
fst (1, loop)
 innermost reduction gives:
 fst (1, (tail loop))
 fst (1, (tail (tail loop))) and never terminates
 but outermost reduction gives:
 fst (1, loop) = 1 and terminates